Friday, February 24, 2012
Question : (Unedited)
Hi! One of my assignments this week in my Virtual High School course
and Western Thought) is to interview an expert with three questions
the subject of Buddhism. Obviously, I chose you as my expert! If possible, I
would appreciate a reply by Saturday, October 6th. Thank you so much for
time and availability!
1) Present-day society is consumed and dominating by rapid, changing,
and powerful forces such as technological innovation, industrialization, and
urbanization. Even if one is able to meditate daily in quiet and peace, how
does one effectively maintain this calm, reflective mindset and effectively
apply it to interactions in the frenzied day-to-day world?
2) The following question is a theoretical query regarding karma,
reincarnation, and nirvana. Is it theoretically possible for someone to never
truly realize and overcome all accumulated karma? Can certain individuals
possess so much delusion, greed, and aversion that they never achieve
release from the retributive cycle of reincarnation, or do all people inevitably
enter the stream toward Nirvana despite their varying degrees of
3) Out of the eight guides of the Noble Eightfold Path (Right View, Right
Intention, Right Speech, Right Action, Right Livelihood, Right Effort, Right
Mindfulness, Right Concentration), which do you think is the most vital and
practical towards achieving ultimate Nirvana in present-day society? Why?
My comment:Hi K,
Thank you for asking me.
1) Very difficult. For an average person (including me) it is very difficult to maintain the mindfulness to be calm and alert in troubled situation. It takes great effort in training one's mind to be constantly guarded and mindful. Different people will experience different levels of "success". It depends on the intensity of meditation training and the person's inborn character. But the idea is to constantly practise within one's level of ability, and to progress from there through time.
2) The time frame of our existence is beyong our worldly comprehension. The Buddha used the term "kappa" to denote an infinite period of time...an aeon. Assuming a rock cube of 1 cubic mile. Once in every 100 years it is wiped with a cloth. Even when the rock is wiped out, a kappa is still not complete. Such is the great length of time that we mortals are not able to imagine. And the number of beings is also uncountable. There will never be an end to this cycle of birth and death. Since it is a cycle, some will gain release, while others will wallow in this great cycle of birth and death. It is just like a hospital...when will the hospital be able to cure all and close shop?
3) The eightfold path can either be viewed as a cycle, or an eight-lane highway. Either way, it means that the eight factors must be practised together; with varying emphasis at different times.
The Buddha started with "Right View" to explain the Path. Before we can do anything, we MUST have the right view or understanding of the things we wish to do. Take for example, driving. We must understand what is "driving" before we take on the wheels. Only with understanding, can we "think" correctly. When we can think correctly, we will be able to speak and act correctly. With our moral foundation laid, we can now take to life, ensuring we lead a dignified and harmless life. With our daily activities in good control, we can now make extra effort to improve our spiritual lives to build up our mindfulness in order to practise the eightfold path. With our lives in control, we then set out to purify our mind through Buddhist meditation, which will set us free from this worldly existence.
We can divide the Path into three parts. The first two is what we call "wisdom" path. The next three is the "morality" path. The last three is the "concentration or meditative" path.
As you can see, the Path has to be taken in toto. The eight parts cannot be seperated. They must be practised together. However we may say that we should start with the "morality" stage, then making effort to practise "meditation" in order to gain insight and wisdom (the wisdom stage) as to the real nature of existence.
If we insist on pin-pointing the most important factor, then as the Buddha pointed out, the first one is the most important...Right View. Without right view or understanding, everything collapses.
Hope this helps.